PC RAS history

The history of Photochemistry Center RAS refers to 1963, when a branch of Chemical Physics USSR Academy of Sciences in Chernogolovka group was formed Spectroscopy of excited triplet states under the leadership candidate. Sci. Sciences MV ALFIMOV. In 1973 the group was transformed into a laboratory of photochemistry of solids. In 1978, on the basis of this laboratory, the order of the Presidium of the USSR Division was established photochemical processes registration information, which has offices in Moscow and Chernogolovka. The department includes lab photochemistry of solids (Chernogolovka), a group of information properties of light-sensitive materials (Chernogolovka), and a group of photochemistry of recording media (Moscow). In 1987, the order-the order of Ministry of Chemical Industry of the USSR and the USSR in the ICP was formed Department of photochemistry with offices in Moscow and Chernogolovka. In the future, in connection with the formation of an independent Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, USSR began to exist in parallel, two of the Division of photochemistry in Moscow and Chernogolovka. In late 1996, the Moscow Department of photochemistry ICP RAS was transformed into the Photochemistry Center of RAS.

During this time, developed following research and application areas:

1961 - 1967 years. Radiolysis of frozen solutions of organic compounds and polymers. The role of excited triplet states of aromatic molecules.

1961 - 1973 years. Photochemistry of frozen solutions of aromatic compounds. Two-quanta photochemical reactions, the triplet-triplet energy transfer of electronic excitation. Application of work - the creation of photochromic materials based on the phenomenon of triplet-triplet absorption and two-quantum ionization.

1973 - 1978 years. Photochemical reactions of cis-trans isomerization and photodissociation in liquid and solid solutions. Spectroscopy and luminescence of solid solutions. Applied work - fluorescent picture, three-dimensional recording of information.

1978 - 1985 years. Photochemical reactions in disperse systems. Photochemical initiation of phase transitions. Applied work - fluorescent photography and photographic processes based on photochemical initiation of phase transitions.

1985 Spectroscopy (optical, EPR) and photochemistry of organized microsystems (micelles, microcrystals, vesicles, biological structures). Application of work - the creation of color photomaterials new generation.

1987 Investigation of photochemical processes in organized microsystems. Investigation of properties of ensembles of organized microsystems.

1989 Photonics (Photochemistry and photophysics) molecular organized microsystems. The development of the concept of management of chemical function of the system through the levels of its supramolecular organization. Applied work - forming the principles of a complex chemical microreactors operated light.

1990 - present. Study of supramolecular nanoscale photonics systems.

One can see that from the very beginning we are looking for the answer to the question of how light interacts with matter fields (mostly - the processes of absorption of light) and what is the result of interaction of light with matter (the formation of excited electronic states, the emission of light, the migration of excitations, dissociation, ionization of molecules etc.), ie All these years we are developing a scientific field called "photonics condensed matter. Since that time, the contents of studies varied, research methodology became more and more accurate time scale measured the transformation of the molecules become shorter and shorter, and the scale of the objects become less and less. Today, the objects of our investigations are nanostructures, and we investigate the optical properties of these structures and their photochemical transformations in the time range up to femtoseconds.

It is conventionally all these studies the length of 40 years can be divided into several periods. Research into the first period (1963 - 1978 he was.) Belonged to the "Photonics of organic molecules." The focus in this period concentrated on molecules and on the link structure of molecules and their spectral and photochemical properties. During this period, our targets were liquid and solid solutions of organic molecules - homogeneous environment. We investigated the fluorescence and phosphorescence of molecules link the spectral and kinetic characteristics of the structure of molecules, the properties of lower and higher triplet states, the spectra of triplet-triplet absorption and chemical transformation of molecules excited to higher triplet states - dissociation, ionization of molecules and triplet-triplet energy transfer from higher triplet state (two-photon conversion), trans-cis isomerization, transport processes of singlet and triplet excitations in glasses and polymers. The main focus of research - the link between the structure of molecules and their spectral and photochemical properties. It was first demonstrated the possibility of effective triplet-triplet intramolecular and intermolecular transfer of excitation from the higher triplet states. In the course of these studies was shown the important role of molecular environment in the intramolecular and intermolecular processes.

These are the facts and identify problems to be solved in the second period of research related to the study of "Photonics micron systems" (1978 - 1985 years.). It was clear that changing the spectral and photochemical properties of molecules can not only through the synthesis of new chemical structures, but also through the organization of molecules in supramolecular ensembles defined structure. Several experimental facts indicate that, by varying the method of packing of molecules within the ensemble, can significantly change the optical and photochemical properties of molecules. During this period, the study of the scientific school has shifted to the region of photonics microheterogeneous systems. The objects of investigation were emulsion and dispersion in liquid and solid media, mycelial and vesicular systems Legmyura-Blodgett films, microcrystals. Dispersed particles were typically micron size. However, studies have shown that the transition from macro to micro does not change or slightly alter the optical and photochemical properties of substances.

Differences from homogeneous solutions arise only when the dispersed particle has a complex heterogeneous structure, or when there was a mass transfer between dispersed (emulsion) particles in solution, etc. From the observed effects in these studies should be mentioned photoinitiated processes of crystallization of amorphous particles, reaction (2 +2) photocycloaddition, which occur in microscopic topochemical small size, photoinitiated reaction with localized vibrational reagents in micelle and emulsion particles. The result of studies of this period was concluded that due to the organization of the molecules by incorporating them into amorphous or crystalline structures can be controlled with optical and photochemical properties of matter, however, the ability to manage the direction and effectiveness photoprocesses through the organization of molecules in the structure of micron size is limited (Izv. Acad. Sciences of the USSR, ser. Chem., 1990, № 10). Lessons from this period of experimental material testified that, creating organized in a certain architecture of molecular structures, can create systems and materials with predetermined optical and photochemical properties. There emerged a region of photonics, which was called "Photonics of supramolecular structures, its further development led to the formation of" Photonics of supramolecular nanostructures.